ANIMAL CASE REPORT

Gun shot injury in a cow

A cow presented with a gun shot injury inside the deep jungle. Ice packs were applied at the inflamed areas and strong anti inflammatory drugs were administered at high dozes, but no improvement was noticed. Cow went into comma through reversible shock. Immediately, tracheal window(tracheotomy) was made to aid in respiration that resulted in that’s quick regain of sense and that stood up for one and half hours. Cow succumbed before arrival of the intensive fluid therapy.

Animal- Jersey cross cow. adult age.

Place ant time- village Tepra, p.o. Namhol, district Bilaspur, state Himachal pradesh, India. 26/02/2008

History- Sound of two gun shots with smoke and cow rushing from jungle to that’s shed located nearby. That was bleeding at cheeks profusely.

Signs- One hole on left side of cheek below ear having about 1.5 cm diameter. Second hole on right side at same level having 3 cm diameter. One very small hole on left side of neck that was shallow. Blood was not coming out through holes at that time. Face and neck were very large and swollen. Snoring and very fast respiration @ 50-60 was there. Cow was standing.

Diagnosis- Laryngeal compression due to ongoing oedematous swelling causing difficulty in respiration. Also body fluid depletion through shock and excessive hemorrhages.

Treatment- Continuous bathing of inflamed area with ice cold water, injection Meloxicam @30 ml i/m at two sites, injection streptopenicillin @2.5 g i/m. There was no effect of treatment. Animal started aimless wandering into obstacles due to cerebral hypoxia. Then cow fell down with tongue protruding out and became unconscious. Tracheal(trachea/windpipe) small incision was given to make a ball pen size window in that for by pass respiration along with rapid pressing and releasing of chest(resurrection). The air flow started through the window vigorously/noice fully and the cow drawn back that’s tongue into that’s mouth. Cow rose up to sitting position from being laterally recumbent earlier. Cow became conscious again. Tracheal incision was perfect and no hemorrhages except for a little from overlying muscles for few minutes was noticed. May be this was due to low blood pressure. cow remained alert for next one and half hours. Then stood up and started aimless wandering. She also started kitting (kit-kit sound) of teeth. After 15 minutes, cow fell down and died soon before arrival of the intensive fluid therapy in that remote area. Total course of disease in our presence was about 2.5 to 3 hours. Local police was informed by the owner. On request of police, postmortem of cow was performed.

Cause of death- Traumatic/hypovolumic/hemorrhagic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) due to systemic inflammatory responce syndrome(SIRS).

Legal guidelines- The jacket of bullet should be preserved as it provides the vital clues about the type of gun/rifle used. Since the exit hole was wider than the entrance hole, so that appeared as if an expanding type(lead) of bullet because lead(in anterior part of jacket, naked) being soft expands due to impact of soft tissues. Other bullet types are fragmenting types which become fragmented to many pieces after penetration thus increasing the tissue injury. Any type of bullet can disintegrate at light contact with the skin so making many holes. Lead type of bullet has lead inside the jacket(made up of copper) and some part of it is naked at anterior part of the jacket so that it can expand to cause maximum tissue injury. Copper jacket is specific for the specific barrels/rifles so that should be preserved. Other fragments/pieces of the bullet are also to be preserved to be presented in the court of law.

Animal(buffalo) case report

Actinobacillosis in a buffalo unresponsive to streptomycin

There was a buffalo case having chronic Actinobacillosis with only mild symptoms of the disease. That created confusion, first causing wrong diagnosis that was done as Ketosis at first time, unresponsive/simple Actinobacillosis at second time  and liver damage on third occasion. It lastly recovered with potassium iodide oral therapy @ 7g od for 7 days.

Date and place

village Tepra, p.o. Namhol, district Bilaspur, state Himachal pradesh, India. dated 26-02-2008

Animal

Species-Bovine-buffalo, age-adult/full mouth.

History

There was a gradual weakness since calving about 5 months ago. Rapid weakness and oligophagia/reduced appetite since about 12-13 days along with constant dribbling of saliva. No total refusal of food. Selective eating of grass avoiding dry but eating lush green. Frequent up-down shaking of head while picking up grass to mouth. Rumination type movements of jaws but no froth seen to outside, although a clear stingy saliva visible. Animal used to lick the hands of owner when being healthy but now stopping that all together.

Clinical signs

Pulse rate-60/normal, respiration rate- normal, rectal temperature- 99-100 degree F showing weakness, conjuctival mucous membrane-bright pink/normal, oral cavity-no shear molars, no grass entangled between teeth and cheek, no foreign body between molars and anywhere inside buccal cavity. Tongue appeared somewhat enlarged posteriorly. On anterior side of tongue, blackish spots(size of pin head) distributed. Body condition- very much emaciated and hide bound. Reduced from the original size of 400 kg to 200 kg.

Diagnosis number 1

Ketosis. Treatment done- Injection dexamethasone @20 mg i/m and bolus albendazole orally but to no effect.

Diagnosis number 2

Actnobacillosis. Treatment done- Injection Streptomycin @ 2.5 g i/m o.d. for 3 days and injection liver extract for 2 days but to no effect.

Diagnosis number 3

Liver damage due to facioliasis or any other reason. Treatment done- Injection liver extract at a rate 5 times the normal doze rate for 4 days/up to one day more of stoppage of salivation and initiation of tongue movement(by the effect of KI) including injection B-complex for two days. Potassium iodide was also administered in the last 2 days of above course, orally without hope for its effect but only to satisfy the owner/for hit and trial @ 7 g daily for 7 days. Miracle type occured and salivation stopped after 2 days of potassium iodide therapy.

Conclusion- It appears that the above described disease in buffalo was a chronic form of Actinobacillosis that was unresponsive to Streptomycin.